The provision and use of financial services and products that conform to Islamic religious principles pose special challenges for the identification, measurement, monitoring, and control of underlying risks. Effective and efficient risk management in Islamic financial institutions has assumed particular importance as they endeavor to cope with the challenges of globalization. This requires the development of not only a more suitable regulatory framework, but also new financial instruments and institutional arrangements to provide an enabling operational environment for Islamic finance. The recent establishment of the Islamic Financial Services Board, facilitated by the IMF, addresses these needs.