In this volume outstanding specialists review the state of the art in nervous system research for all main invertebrate groups. They provide a comprehensive up-to-date analysis important for everyone working on neuronal aspects of single groups, as well as taking into account the phylogenesis of invertebrates. The articles report on recently-gained knowledge about diversification in the invertebrate nervous systems, and demonstrate the analytical power of a comparative approach. Novel techniques in molecular and developmental biology are creating new perspectives that point toward a theoretical foundation for a modern organismic biology. The comparative approach, as documented here, will engage the interest of anyone challenged by the problem of structural diversification in biology.